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学习,教学课程教你

时间:2014-07-23 07:32:24  来源:  作者:

 Teaching online yields lessons about learning, Stanford scholars say | Stanford Online
学习,教学课程教你
From:online.stanford.edu By: R.F.McKay
May 31, 2013
MOOCs on computer science and math yield rich rewards, scholars tell a forum audience. Among them is the feedback they get about how students learn.
What's Darwinian, thrilling and so rewarding it's like a drug you just want to take again and again?
奖学金获得者告诉参加论坛的观众,“慕课网”(简称MOOCs)在计算机科学和数学方面获得了很多嘉奖。很多人带着反馈,向观众们述说学生怎样利用“慕课网”进行学习。是什么让人激动人心和欢欣鼓舞,让你像达尔文一样中了邪似的一遍又一遍的乐在其中?
Online teaching, at least according to three Stanford scholars who have been there and back. They participated May 22 in the third of a series of faculty forums sponsored by the Office of the Vice Provost for Online Learning (VPOL) and theGraduate School of Education (GSE). The trio were among Stanford's pioneers in the world of massive open online courses, or MOOCs.
答案是在线教学,至少根据曾接触过的三名斯坦福大学的教授的答案。他们在5月22日参加了由Office of the Vice Provost for Online Learning (简称VPOL)和Graduate School of Education (简称GSE)赞助的第三次系列教师论坛。他们三个都是大规模在线开放课程—简称“慕课网”的斯坦福先驱人物。
Panelists at the forum, titled "Research Opportunities in Online and Blended Learning," were Keith Devlin, a mathematician and executive director of Stanford's Human Sciences and Technologies Advanced Research Institute (H-STAR); Scott Klemmer, associate professor of computer science and co-director of Stanford's Human-Computer Interaction Group; and Dan Boneh, professor of computer science and of electrical engineering. The moderator was Mitchell Stevens, associate professor of education.
在这个论坛里,以“在线混合学习机会的研究”为名的专家组成员,包括,斯坦福大学数学家,同时担任斯坦福大学人类科学和科学技术发展研究所的常务理事Keith Devlin;斯坦福大学人机交互组主任,也是计算机科学学院的副教授Scott Klemmer;计算机科学也是电子工程学教授的Dan Boneh. 这次论坛的的主持人是来自斯坦福大学教育学副教授Mitchell Stevens.
Devlin's course, Introduction to Mathematical Thinking, was first offered in fall 2012 and will reappear this coming fall.
2012年的秋季,Devlin的课程《数学思维简介》第一次搬上“慕课网”开放给大众,这门课程将会在今年秋季再次开放。
"Mathematical thinking is not the same as math," he said. "It's the technique of taking a real problem in the real world that hasn't been solved before and conceptualizing it in mathematical terms."
“数学思维和数学并不一样,” Devlin说“是一种可以将之前在现实世界未解决的问题以数学术语概念化的技术”。
Many people drop out of math classes in school, Devlin said, and then are unable to see that mathematical thinking can unlock many human problems. "It's like learning to ride a bike; there's only one way to learn: Get on, fall off, get on, fall off, until it clicks. In math, that click usually happens only when you're a grad student grading papers." In the world of MOOCs, it means tinkering, looking at feedback, reading the forums, adjusting and doing it again. "It's a Darwinian form of education," he said.
很多人在学校的时候,不去上数学课,他们当然就不明白数学思维可以解决很多人类遗留的问题,Devlin说,“这就像学骑自行车一样,只有一种学会骑车的方法:骑上去,跌下来,骑上去,跌下来,直到骑上去,不再跌下来。学好数学的唯一标准是当你以研究生的身份批改试卷的时候。” 在“慕课网”的世界里,这意味着思索,看反馈,看论坛,做调整,然后一遍又一遍的做。“这就是达尔文式的教育方式”他说。
Devlin is known to most people as "The Math Guy" on NPR Radio's Weekend Edition. As someone used to speaking on the airwaves, he said, a MOOC was impossible to resist. And just as the trick to good radio work is to imagine you are speaking to only one person, not millions, so too with MOOCs. That direct link between student and professor is essential, but so is collaboration among students. Learning has to be a collective enterprise, he said, and that's where peer assessment comes in.
Devlin因为在NPR电台周末版作为“数学人”而被大家熟知。就像以前人们常常在电台里说的那样,Devlin说,人们是不会拒绝“慕课网”的,这就像好的电台为什么那么受欢迎一样:因为主持人想象是在跟一个人说话,而不是数百万人,“慕课网”也是如此。教授和学生间的直接交流是很必要的,但是学生和学生间的合作同样重要。他说,学习就像是一个集体企业,里面应该有同行间的评议。
STUDENTS GRADING STUDENTS
学生互评
Klemmer and his associates developed a system a year ago by which MOOC students must grade five of their peers' work on class projects. Unbeknownst to the students, one of the five projects they assess already has been assessed by faculty, so it has what Klemmer calls a "ground truth grade," which enables instructors to see how far wide of the mark the peer grades are. The system has been used since last spring in some 50 MOOCs, including Devlin's.
一年前Klemmer和他的助理为“慕课网”的学生们开发了一个学习系统,这个系统要求学生必须批改五个学员的课堂作业。学生们还不知道,他们批改的五份作业的其中一份也被当做一项作业交到教师那里进行批改。这就是Klemmer所说的“最真实的成绩”,它能为导师显示出学生成绩的范围情况。去年春天,这个系统已经在50位“慕课网”教师的课程中使用了,其中就包括Devlin的课程。
Feedback is delivered in a single aggregate number, but to make it slightly more qualitative, peer assessors can attach what Klemmer calls a fortune cookie, a little piece of standardized advice that might also go out to other students but which the assessor thinks is especially suited to the project he or she is looking at. Klemmer's group created a video about peer assessment in the hope that more courses will incorporate it.
反馈的信息是以单独的集合数字的形式返回系统,但是为了让反馈信息质量更高,那些互评的学生可以附带上Klemmer所称的“幸运饼干”——一个可能为学生提供参考的标准化的建议—来对自己所评价的其他学生的作业进行批改。Klemmer的团队还创作了一个关于互评的视频,希望更多的课程可以采用它。
Klemmer's enthusiasm for online teaching stems in part from the fact that he was trained as a designer. His goal, he said, is to mimic the experience of the studio, and he thinks they got pretty close with the Human-Computer Interaction course. The studio model of education, he said, "is very similar to the best research group meeting you've ever been at." The web can put that sort of communal, iterative experience within the reach of MOOC students.
Klemmer对在线教学的热情的原因一部分是他是一个设计者。他说,他的目标是模拟工作室的经验,并且他认为他们团队与人机交互课程相类似。“工作室的教育模式和你曾经参加的最好的研究小组非常相似”他说,网站可以把公开的反复的经验传播给“慕课网”的学生。
Boneh, Klemmer's colleague in the Computer Science Department, works on cryptography and computer security. He currently is teaching his online Cryptography I course for the second time. Cryptography has a lot of math, which most people don't know, and it bears no resemblance to its portrayal in Hollywood movies in which a genius somehow figures out how to break the system.
Klemmer在计算机科学系的同事,Boneh,在密码学和计算机科学领域颇有研究。他目前是第二次在线教授他的《密码学》课程了。密码学中涉及很多人们并不了解的数学知识,它也和在好莱坞大片里一个天才少年以某种方法破解系统并没有任何联系。“上这个课程最大的挑战”他说,“就是如何把它上得吸引人,性感,并解释清楚它和你在电影里面看到的并不相同,这就是数学。我第一次录制上课视频的时候,就发现当时上课方向不对”。人们总是在网站论坛里问他非常基础的问题,他们并不了解那些数学符号。一个12岁孩子曾问他什么叫概率。“我并不是指那些在线学习的观众”他说,“我在思考斯坦福。那并不是一种思考数学的正确方式”。
"The challenge," Boneh said, "is to take something very appealing, very sexy, and explain that it's not what you see in the movies; it's math. The first time I recorded the class, I realized I got it wrong." People were asking him very basic questions on the online forums. They didn't understand symbols. A 12-year-old asked him what probability was. "I wasn't aiming at that audience," Boneh said. "I was thinking Stanford. And that was not the right way of thinking about it."
As a result, the second iteration explains everything and assumes nothing. Not only that, but Boneh has taken the lessons he learned online and applied them to his Stanford course. He also has learned how to teach 12-year-olds.
结果,在第二次视频录制的时候他解释了一切。不仅仅这样,他还把在线教学获得的经验和教训带到了他斯坦福大学的课堂里。他也学会了如何教授12岁的孩子学习。
INTERACTING ON THE FORUMS
论坛上得互动
For Boneh, the forums were tremendously rewarding. "Interaction is a key part" of online teaching, he said. He would spend maybe an hour a day talking to his students, answering questions, pointing them in new directions.
对Boneh来说,论坛就是一个巨大的宝藏。他说:“在线教学里,互动是很关键的一个部分”。他会每天抽出一个小时来和论坛里的学生们进行谈话,回答他们的问题,为他们指引学习的方向。
"There was an unbelievable response," he said. "Students were so happy that they're actually interacting with a Stanford professor - people around the world who have never even seen a professor. The feedback was so rewarding it was like a drug - I wanted to do more and more of it."
“这样有着不可思议的效果”他说,“他们非常高兴居然真的能和一位素昧谋面的斯坦福大学的教授进行交流。反馈的效果真的让人欢欣鼓舞,我就像上了毒瘾一样不能自拔,我还要做得更多”。
Devlin too hung out on the forums, though he said he tended to sit back and watch the discussion rather than intervene, later posting the URLs of those threads he thought were most productive. The forums are "remarkably self-regulating," he said. "People start flaming, and they quickly disappear. There's a strong sense of 'we're learning, let's get the most out of this experience.'"
Devlin也会在论坛里泡着,尽管他常常是坐着观看大家的讨论而不是加入其中,但是最后他会为论坛版块里他认为最有成效的讨论结果附上网址的链接。“论坛自律性很高”他说,“刚开始大家都各抒己见,但很快就没了声音。因为有一种很强的共识‘我们在学习,让我吸取一些其他人的经验’”。
Boneh raised a problem he doesn't have an answer for: the extraordinary pace of change in the materials he teaches. Just a few months after he records a video on computer security, the material might be obsolete. It helps that video segments are short, so that only outdated sections need to be re-recorded. Still, faculty will somehow need to be incentivized to continually update the materials, he said.
Boneh提出了一个他自己都找不到答案的问题:随着教材的改变上课进度是否改变。在他录制《计算机安全》的视频几个月后,旧的教学材料可能就过时了。对视频有帮助的片段很短,所以那些过时的部分需要重新录制。同样的,教师也应以某种方式受到刺激不断更新教学材料,他说。
Boneh, as the security expert, was asked about cheating, to which he replied that he didn't really care. "It's very interesting learning how to teach by not caring about cheating. You cheat, it's your problem ... I'm there to teach, not to evaluate," he said, to which the moderator, Stevens, a sociologist, added, "you've been freed of the responsibility of assessment."
作为一个安全专家,当被主持人问到关于作弊的问题是,他以“并不十分关心”做出回应。“只考虑如何教而不用关心学生作弊问题是非常有趣的。你作弊,那是你的问题。我只是在教授知识而非去评价你”他对着主持人同时也是社会学家的主持人Stevens继续说道“你就可以从评判学生成绩中解脱出来了”。
Klemmer, who will be taking a position at the University of California-San Diego in the fall, responded to a question from Bruce Clemens, a Stanford engineering professor who taught a MOOC last fall called Solar Cells, Fuel Cells and Batteries. How can these online mechanisms teach us about teaching? Clemens asked.
"We have a really interesting opportunity here," Klemmer said. "Many faculty at Stanford are excellent teachers, but many of them know little about the literature about learning. What's fascinating to me is that over the past year," since MOOCs began being taught, "I've had more conversations with colleagues here about teaching than during the previous nine years."
准备在秋天去加利福尼亚大学圣地亚哥分校任职的Klemmer,回答了去年在“慕课网”开设了《太阳能电池和能源电池》课程的斯坦福工程学教授Bruce Clemens的问题:这些教学机制如何教我们教学呢。“我们这里有让人感兴趣的机会。” Klemmer说“很多教师在斯坦福大学都是顶尖的,但是他们很多都不了解文学的学习,吸引我的是过去的那些年。自从‘慕课网’上线,我在这儿和同事间的教学交流比我过去9年的还要多”。

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