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科学研究七步法

时间:2010-12-20 21:58:58  来源:  作者:

1. 提出问题
What is it that you are trying to find out from your experiment? What is it that you are trying to achieve?

2. 收集整理背景信息
Read about research that other scientists have done. Read about techniques and instruments that other scientists have used to study the process. Try to understand the uses and limitations of the methods: the answer is only as specific as the methods used to answer it. Think about the process. Investigate what others have already learned about your question. Gather information that will help you perform your experiment.

3. 建立假说
After having thoroughly researched a topic, you should have some prediction about what you think will happen in your experiment. This educated guess concerning the outcome is called your hypothesis. You must state your hypothesis in a way that you can readily measure, i.e., one that can be answered with the techniques and instruments that you have available. You must use methods that have been used before, or you must “validate” your method (prove that it works).

4. 运用实验 验证假说
Now that you have come up with a hypothesis, you need to develop a procedure for testing whether it is true or false. This involves changing one variable and measuring the impact that this change has on other variables.
When you are conducting your experiment, you need to make sure that you are only measuring the impact of a single change.
Design an objective experiment that keeps all the things that influence your answer constant, except the one you are testing.
Scientists run experiments more than once to verify that results are consistent.
Each time that you perform your experiment is called a run or a trial.

5. 分析实验结果
At this stage, you want to be organizing and analyzing the data that you have collected during the course of your experiment in order to summarize what your experiment has shown you.

6. 得出结论
This is your opportunity to explain the meaning of your results. Did your experiment support your hypothesis? Does additional research need to be conducted? How did your experiment address your initial question and purpose?

7. 发表论文
Since you are performing an experiment for the science fair, you will write a report and prepare a display board so that others can share in your discoveries.
Describe your methods, make a table of your results and graph them, and make conclusions based on the evidence and assumptions that you state. It is very important to list all your instruments, materials, methods, and references, so others may duplicate your results.

 

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