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演讲技巧之如何应对提问

时间:2014-05-24 17:35:33  来源:  作者:

I’m sure you’ve felt it: the horror at the end of a presentation (which, let’s face it, can be a bit of a trauma in its own right) when you ask the following:
我肯定你有过这样的经历:演讲结束恐惧症,因为此时你要问:

“Any questions?”
有任何问题要问吗?

There seems to be one of two ways things can go at that moment — and neither fills you with delight.
可能出现的场景只有两种,而且没有一种能使你满意。

Firstly, there’s the Tumbleweed Option. Silence. Nothing — save perhaps for an embarrassed cough. Was your presentation really so bad that no one could understand it enough to think of a coherent question? Did you run over time so badly no one wants to hold up the next speaker, or – more importantly – get to the coffee break? Did you give such a perfect presentation that all possible questions were answered? (Spoiler alert: You didn’t.)
第一种场景是,台下一片沉默,你连尴尬的咳嗽都可以省了。是你的演讲太烂了没有人能听懂,所以连一个相关的问题也想不出来么?还是你的演讲时间太长,大家不想耽误下一位演讲者而忽略了提问?或者更悲剧的,大家要借此机会喝杯咖啡休息休息?难不成是你的演讲太过精彩和强悍以已经解答了他们心里的所有疑问?(当然不是了)

Option two is worse. The Killer Questions Option. At least with the Tumbleweed Option you’ve got the silver lining that you get to leave the stage sooner. With the Killer Questions Option you get to stay there and risk exposing your ignorance. For all its problems at least you can control the main body of your presentation — during questions everyone can hear you scream.
第一种场景就更差了。大家纷纷抛出致命性的问题。至少在第一种场景里,你还可以尽快地全身而退。而在第二种场景里,你必须站在演讲台上,冒着暴露你的准备不周的风险去回答提问。演讲的时候,尽管你可能漏洞百出,但是至少大局掌握在你手里。而在问答环节,大家似乎都可以听见你的尖叫声了。

These are some of the most reliable ways of dealing with questions that I’ve researched. found or observed… Know your subject
也许你要说,还是有可靠的办法去解答那些问题的如果你曾做过研究、观察---也就是说要深刻了解你演讲的话题。

Yes, yes, everyone says this but I still see presenters who think they can research just enough about a topic to be able to deliver the presentation in question and no more. I’m sure there are valid reasons for doing this, but I can’t think of any offhand.
是的是的,每个人都会这么说,不过我仍然看到许多演讲者所作的调查和研究仅仅只局限于能完成这个演讲本身。我知道他们这么做自由他们正当的理由,只是我不敢苟同。

Take a break and go over your presentation with a fresh mind (or better yet, give it to a friend) and see what questions spring to mind. The advantage of using your friends is that they’ll have a clearer mind. I know its obvious but it’s a great way to figure out what you might be asked.
不妨休息一下,跟一个没有看过你演讲稿的人一起,把稿子再过一边(最好是和你的朋友)。然后看看会有什么问题浮现在他的脑海里。这样做的好处在于,因为你的朋友对你的话题一无所知,没有任何先入为主的概念。我承认这是很显然但也是一个非常有效的方法,去推测你可能会被问及的问题。

Buy the local newspaper and The Daily Mail (in the UK). Between them you should get a reasonable idea of what the burning issues are for the area you’re speaking in. You’ll be amazed at how often a member of the audience will find a way of asking a question which is relevant to both what you said and what their personal or local issue is. If you’re talking about exercise, someone will ask you about the proposed local swimming pool. If you’re talking about using social media, someone will ask you about the ‘horrible new proposed mast’ for the mobile phone network (and whether it’ll cause X, Y or Z in the neighbourhood). Have a Question Bank
买一份你要去演讲那里的地方性报纸和一份每日邮报(英国)。通过这两份报纸,你应该能够抓住你要演讲的话题的热点在哪里。你会为一个听众能够把其自身或者当地的热点问题和你所讲的内容联系起来问问题,而感到吃惊。如果你的话题是关于锻炼的,有人可能就会问你关于提议在当地修建一个游泳池的问题。如果你的演讲是关于社交媒体的,有人可能就会问如毒瘤般的当地新建的移动电话网络信号杆(以及它是否会对周边地区释放X、Y或Z射线)。总之,他们的问题会像一个银行里的钱那么多。

if you ever get asked a question you’ve not been asked before, note it down, decide on an answer and record that answer for next time. By the time you’ve given a presentation half a dozen times you’ll have covered most of the bases.
如果你被问及了一个从未问及的问题,把它记录下来,做出一个回答,以便在下一次被问及时可以用。当你的演讲进行了一半时,你应该已经谈及了大部分的内容了。

Draw yourself a mind map of the the presentation — or better yet — draw one on the whole topic area that you’re speaking about. You’ll have the big idea in the middle, secondary ideas going off as ‘tier one’ and smaller issues going off those as ‘tier two’ and so on. Most questions come from the outer fringes of the mind map, so look carefully at those and prepare your answers.
画一个你演讲内容的思维导图--或者更好的办法是--为每一个你要讲的话题都画一个思维导图。这样你就能抓住演讲的重点,分清要点的主次,不至于本末倒置。大多数的问题会来自你思维导图的外围,因此请认真准备你的回答。

Most people care about their own lives, not the big issues — or at least how they intersect. For example, if you’re talking about the advantages of online training over face-to-face training, questions are less likely to be about the cognitive/recall issues of electronic learning (which is perhaps a tier one issue) as they are to be about whether your training will be accessible on their particular browser (as though they’re the only person in the world using that browser) despite the fact that you may have been very clear in your presentation that your material can be delivered on any browser. Wrapping up
大部分只会关心自己的生活而非大事件--或者说,至少是与他们相关的。例如,你的演讲是关于在线培训胜过面对面培训,那么类似于电子学习的认知性以及曾经出现过的不良问题等问题就不会被问及,因为他们更可能关心的是自己能否用家里的浏览器接受你的在线培训(好像他们是这世上唯一在使用那些浏览器的人),尽管你很清楚地在你的演讲里讲过了,任何浏览器都可以接收你的培训材料。好了,搞定!

So there you have it – the some great ways of predicting and handling questions, based upon years as a presentation skills trainer, researcher and so on… of course (and this is based upon personal experience!) there’s always the option you don’t know the answer! :)
就是这些了---最好的用来预测和准备回答问题的方法,它们可是演讲技巧培训师们历年研究调查得出的结论哦!当然(基于个人经验),你总会被问道你不知道答案的问题的。

I know, I know…some of these are obvious. But they’re not so obvious that people do it! Others, such as the Daily Mail and the Mind Map, are techniques we’ve developed ourselves over the years and work for us.
我知道,我知道...以上很多都是每个人都知道的事。但是每个人都知道,并不代表每个人都会去做。例如每日邮报以及思维导图的运用,都是我们近年来才发展出来的新技巧,实践证明它们确实有用。

And given that we’re professional presenters and trainers, we can’t afford to screw up…so they’re pretty thoroughly tested.
鉴于我们是专业的演讲者或演讲培训师,如果这些方法无用,这后果我们承担不起。因此请放心,它们都是经过测试证明行之有效的方法。

(Photo credit: Many raised fingers in class at university via Shutterstock)

Simon runs a soft skills training company called Aware Plus in the UK, but is probably best known for his work as a presentation skills trainer. He's also becoming known as a speaker on emotional robustness and personal resilience... he's also a fairly proficient fire-eater!
本文作者简介:西蒙在英国开了一家名叫Aware Plus的软技能培训公司,不过其在业界最出名的是作为一个演讲技能培训师。而且,他作为一个情绪稳固性和个人韧性方面的演说家也逐渐知名起来。同时,他也是一位非常熟练的呑火魔术师。
 

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