给我留言 | 加入收藏 | 设为首页 | 会员中心 | 我要投稿 | RSS
| 学界大牛 | 助推学术 | 致辞致谢感言 | 论文撰写与演讲 | 协同中心 | 学术期刊 | 研究群体 | 学术搜索 | 学术软硬件 | 学术会议 | 学术论坛 | 科普展览 |
您当前的位置:首页 > 科技人生 > 论文撰写与演讲

科技写作(103):时态的使用要妥当

时间:2013-01-27 22:36:23  来源:  作者:

科技论文中常用的两种时态是现在时和过去时。一般而言,在表述观察结果、已完成的行为及特定结论时应使用过去时。例如,描述实验结果时要使用过去时,因为实验已经结束,而你的结果尚未成为公认的“事实”。因此,那些主要涉及你自身工作的内容,如“摘要”、“材料和方法”以及“结论”部分都应使用过去时。

C 例1

a Higher temperatures resulted in less bud formation.

b The three images were taken about 90 minutes apart.

对于那些普遍认可的概念和观点用现在时表述。已经发表的结果通常被视为“事实”。 “前言”部分要使用现在时,因为其所介绍的是前人构建的知识。

C 例2

a The newly discovered planet is at least as big as Pluto.

b Most regions where this problem arises belong to category X.

如果用过去时描述已经发表的工作的结果,则表示你不认为该结果是“事实”,而仅仅是观察结果。

C 例3

Sultan observed that certain species of bacteria respond to light stimuli.

该句描述的是一个已经完成的实验。因此“observed”使用了过去时,然而“respond”却使用了现在时,这是因为这部分句子表述的是事实,是发表过的、已经存在的知识。

“讨论”部分是探讨你的工作与前人工作的关系,这部分最难写,因为同时涉及现在时和过去时。记住,通常情况下,展现数据图表时用现在时,描述假说和原理时也用现在时。

C 例 4

The effect of TXY addition is shown in Figure 5.

当观察被重复进行或从过去持续到现在,则使用现在完成时。

C 例5

X has been of interest for the past three decades.

只有一种情况使用将来时,就是你的实验计划于将来实施。未来的实验一般不会出现在研究论文中,但会出现在基金申请中。

C 例6

We will examine if parallel universes exit.

 

练习:下列各句应使用过去时还是现在时(如果答案不只一个,请解释原因)。

1. In our study, tree size __________(increase) with reduction of pesticides.

2. The larva of the monarch butterfly__________(feed) on milkweed.

3. In our study, we__________(find) that there are significant flattenings of the PES along the reaction Pth with increasing cluster size, as Fig. 5__________(indicate).

4. In a study by Fermi, the vibrational levels__________(diverge) into the so-called Fermi dyad.

5. Females of this species__________(have)a unique projection from he dorsal part of the thorax.

6. Recent work by deValt (2001)__________(show) that nematodes__________(reproduce) readily in the laboratory.

7. A phagemid construct encoding 2 transgenes in tandem__________(can) be used to transform E. coli cells.

8. Table 3__________(show) that in our study, polychaetes__________(be) most abundant at depths of 10 to 16 m.

9. Baumann (1997)__________(find) that this bacterium__________(is) highly sensitive to pH.

10. We__________(observe) chemoattraction within 30 min of Shh addition.

11. Identification of restriction factors__________(give) us more knowledge of the host cell restriction system.

12. Our results__________(suggest) that the Asn5 glycosylation site __________(play) a critical role in the function of the KCEN 1 protein.

13. We__________(investigate) high-quality single crystals of vanadium oxide.

14. We__________(do) not observe rods in the diffraction patterns but instead well-defined Bragg spots, suggesting that at least 10 interatomic layers in the surface-normal direction__________(be)contributing to the interferences.

15. Coupled climate-carbon cycle models__________(suggest) that Amazon forests__________(be) vulnerable to droughts, but satellite observations__________(show) a green-up in intact evergreen forests of the Amazon in response to a short, intense drought in 2005.

16. The Ka value for β-cellobiosyl (approaching 103 M-1)______(be)comparable to that for many carbohydrate/protein interactions.

17. Hundreds of species of reef-building corals__________(spawn) synchronously over a few nights each year, and moonlight_________(regulate) this spawning event.

18. Arctic wind anomalies______(be) part of a global-scale pattern of highly unusual circulation in 2007, the causes of which______(be) as yet unclear.

19. To map pathways of motion, all observed Bragg diffractions of different planes and zone axes__________(be examine) on the femtosecond to nanosecond time scale.

20. ABSTRACT: The average translational energy_____(be) significantly lower than expected for the calculated surface temperature.

21. SUMMARY: In conclusion, we_____(find) significant deviations from the equilibrium behavior in fs-laser induced desorption of CO/Ru.

 

 

参考答案

1. increased

2. feed

3. found … indicates

4. diverged

5. have

6. showed… reproduce

7. can

8. shows … were

9. found … is/was

10. observed

来顶一下
返回首页
返回首页
发表评论 共有条评论
用户名: 密码:
验证码: 匿名发表
推荐资讯
相关文章
栏目更新
栏目热门