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高效阅读的三种方法

时间:2010-11-24 12:26:27  来源:  作者:

 

阅读是高中英语能力培养的一个重点,高考对阅读能力的考查的力度也在逐年加大。怎样才能做到读得快、理解准,达到高效率的阅读呢?阅读方式的重要性不容忽视。常见的阅读方式有快读( skimming )、检索读( scanning )和细读( intensive reading )三种。

快读便于读者迅速了解文章的大概内容,形成整体印象。实际上,有些文章我们没有必要研读全文,只需把握文章的脉络,重视每段的第一句,因为一般来说,每段的第一句往往是该段的主题句。例:(摘选自 2004 全国卷 I 阅读 C ,因篇幅有限,仅做部分引用,以下同)

When someone has deeply hurt you, it can be extremely difficult to let go of your anger. But forgiveness is possible ??? and it can be surprisingly helpful to your physical and mental health…

So when someone has hurt you, calm yourself first … Keep in mind that forgiveness does not necessarily mean accepting the action of the person who upset you… Finally, try to see things from the other person's perspective (视角) …

The text is mainly written to explain ______ .

A. how to keep yourself from being hurt

B. how to stay mentally healthy

C. how and when to remain calm

D. why and how to pardon others

利用快读的技巧,只需读每段的开头,就会很快明白文章的主旨。第一段写为什么要原谅别人;第二段写如何原谅别人。从而得出文章的主旨,选出答案 D 。

检索读是读者在对材料有所了解的前提下,在大量的材料中去寻找一个特定的信息如日期、数字或词组等。不需逐行阅读,但记住要找的信息,快速自上而下扫视,期待相关信息的出现。如高考中的应用文、广告等,只需浏览内容提要、前言、标题、插图,表格或开头和结尾等相关的部分即可。一般在作答时采用先看题目,再根据所要的相关信息去阅读。例:(摘选自 2004 广东卷 E )

Apollo

For lovers of the arts, Apollo is a truly necessary magazine. Covering the ages and the great civilizations of the world, Apollo brings you well-illustrated yet academic articles by internationally famous scholars, as well as information on exhibitions and sales. Experience five monthly issues for as little as £ 5 each.

The Guardian Weekly

The Guardian Weekly gives you a global view with articles from four of the world's most respected newspapers….

New Internationalist

Full of excellent writing and photography, the N1 covers one key subject each month, from Terrorism to Poverty to Climate Change….

The Week

The Week is the only weekly summary giving you the best of the British and foreign newspapers in just 35 pages….

Which of the following magazines will probably provide you with articles about music and paintings?

A. Apollo B. The Week

C. New Internationalist D. The Guardian Weekly

利用检索读的技巧快速浏览,找出特定的与上述选项中相关的信息,不需理解其他信息可以确定,只有答案 A (艺术类)才与 music and paintings 相关。

细读主要考查考生分析具体信息的能力和相关细节的分析能力,根据上下文推测词义,根据材料进行判断,推理和引申以及领会作者的观点、态度和“弦外之音”等。这就要求我们认真理解每个细节,仔细分析。如:(选自 2004 江苏卷 E 篇)

Wildlife belongs to everyone and not to the gunners alone. Although most people do not shoot, they seem to forgive shooting for sport because they know little or nothing about it. The only answer, then, is to bring the truth about sport shooting to the great majority of people. ①

Now, it is time to realize that animals have the same right to life as we do and that there is nothing fair or right about a person with a gun shooting the harmless and beautiful creatures. The gunners like to describe what they do as character-building, but we know that to wound an animal and watch it go through the agony of dying can make nobody happy ② If, as they would have you believe, gun-carrying and killing improve human-character, then perhaps we should encourage war ③ .

It can be inferred from the text that the author seems to ________ .

A. blame the majority of people B. worry about the existence of wildlife

C. be in flavor of war D. be in support of character-building

此题要求细读相关的最后两个段落,对每个选项进行分析:从①处可以判断 A 错,大多数人不懂也不明真相;从②处“伤害动物,看看他们痛苦地死去使大家不愉快”的陈述,说明作者不赞成少数人的所谓理由, D 错;而③用虚拟语气,“如果说猎杀可以改进人的个性(品质),那么,战争岂不是值得鼓励?”来反驳这种荒谬的言论,故 C 错;最后可以推断 B 为正确选项。

可见,明确了这三种阅读技巧,对你突破高考阅读会帮助很大,你学会了吗?

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