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英语作文段落的构成要素

时间:2010-10-22 17:23:40  来源:  作者:

 段落是由若干个彼此关联的句子构成的,通常用以表达一个中心思想或者从一个角度对文章的主题进行阐述。因此,段落不能是一组句子的任意堆砌,而是符合一定的模式,具有某些基本特征,遵循一定段落发展方法的。

  当然,段落并没有固定的模式。在实践中,我们常常碰到各种各样的段落,有些仅仅充当导言或结束语,有些仅仅起过渡词作用,这种段落便不可能也不必要包含完整的思想内容。要写出一篇好文章,我们就必须了解一些结构完整的段落的写法,掌握一点组句成段的基本知识。

  结构完整的段落大多由三部分组成:

  一、主题句

  主题句是概括段落中心思想,反映作者写作意图的一个概括性的句子,是段落的核心所在。所以,写好主题句是写好一个段落的前提。

  1.段落主题句的位置及其作用

  主题句通常由主题和作者的观点两部分组成,作为段落传递信息的出发点,简明扼要地告诉读者段落的线索和范围。但是,主题句的位置并不是固定不变的,它可以位于段首,也可以位于段中、段尾。主题句位于段首的情况比较多见。段首主题句开门见山,直接点明段落主题,有助于确定段落的主线,使各个发展句围绕段落主题自然展开;段尾主题句具有结论作用,是对前面句子的归纳总结。

  请看下面各例:

  Public opinions on what it takes to succeed in ones studies or career vary widely. Given approximately equal circumstances, some claim the success factor is largely a matter of luck—being in the right place and the right time. Others speak of utter devotion to work, combined with a degree of ruthlessness. Still others maintain that it is undoubtedly a matter of how much intelligence you have or simply how much education your mother had. In a word, people have different ideas on it.

  本段的主题句Public opinions on what it takes to succeed in ones studies or career vary widely.放在段落的开头,开门见山地点明主题,使读者很容易抓住本段的写作主线:对学业或事业成功所持的各种不同的观点和看法。

  The purpose of this book is to provide you with practice in spelling English. It is not a book that treats the complex rules of English orthography. Neither does it teach you how to use a dictionary. Its main objective is to introduce regular spelling patterns: that is, to present a regular system for spelling a large group of words. By learning these patterns, and by practicing them, you will master thousands of words.

  Only the idle will be tired.

  只有闲人才会感到疲倦。本段的主题句The purpose of this book is to provide you with practice in spelling English也是放在段落的开头,直截了当地告诉读者作者的写作意图,使读者对本段的主题思想有了明确的认识。

  Give students a chance to grow. Do you mold them from one of a thousand patterns? Let them seek knowledge, but do not find it for them. Let them learn patience; do not force it on them. Let them take their own time to grow; do not set rigid time schedules. Most of all, do not push them against a stone wall, crushing them with knowledge gained from the experience of others. Experience cannot be taught; it must come slowly through personal search.

  在这个段落中,主题句先不出现,而是先举出许多具体的experiences,在段落结尾时才予以归纳,得出中心结论:Experience cannot be taught; it must come slowly through personal search.这样的段落结构一开始容易使读者产生悬念,从而收到特殊的表达效果。

  Most of us may have such experiences: when you go to some place far away from the city you live in and think you know nobody there, you are surprised to find that you should run into one of your old classmates in the street. Perhaps both of you would cry out,What a small world!

  在这个段落里,作者先给出了一个假设性的事例,吸引读者的注意力,然后在段落结束时总结出What a small world!(世界真小啊)作为段落主题句。这样的段落有感染力,使读者有兴趣读下去。

  但是,主题句有时也可能出现在段落中间,或者根本就没有明显的段落主题句。在下面的例子中主题句是在段落中间出现的。这种情况比较少见。

  Californians and New Englanders are both American. They speak the same language and abide by the same federal laws. But they are very different in their ways of life. Mobility—both physical and psychological—has made a great impression on the culture of Californians; lack of mobility is the mark of the customs and morality of New Englanders.

  有时为了特别强调主题句的内容,也可以使主题句既出现在段首,又出现在段末。如:

  Good manners are important in all countries, but ways of expressing good manners are different from country to country. Americans eat with knives and forks; Japanese eat with chopsticks. Americans sayHiwhen they meet; Japanese bow. Many American men open doors for women; Japanese men do not. On the surface, it appears that good manners in America are not good manners in Japan, and in a way this is true. But in any country, the only manners that are important are those involving one persons behavior toward another person. In all countries it is good manners to behave considerately toward others and bad manners not to. It is only the way of behaving politely that differs from country to country.

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