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英文论文正文的写作技巧

时间:2010-10-05 11:22:55  来源:  作者:

学术论文的主体部分由引言、正文和结论构成。正文部分包括方法、结果与讨论。由于学术论文所涉及的学科、范围广泛,即使在同一学科领域内,由于选题、研究方法、工作进程不同,正文部分的内容也不尽相同,写作方法也就不存在统一的规定或一成不变的模式。所以,本章只着重介绍写正文部分时一些较为典型的语言现象,希望读者能够从中寻求到一般规律。

7.1 描述研究方法

研究方法(Method)部分主要内容包括:

(1)研究工作具备的基本前提或条件,如实验材料、实验场所、设备器材等。

(2)采样、实验、获取数据,并对数据进行技术处理的方法与过程。

(3)理论分析,包括理论依据、基本原理、公式推导、数理模型等。

采样与实验过程,要根据先后顺序或步骤进行描述。例1选自描述对千屈莱这种植物生长的采样与实验过程。

例l

Materials and Methods

[1] In August 1994,entire purple loosestrife(千屈莱)plants were harvested from three habitats(生长环境):1) an upland old field in the Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area in north-eastern Ohio (n=5);2) a shallow ditch along Route 261 in Kent, OH (n = 10); and 3) the western shoreline of East Twin Lake, Portage County, OH (n = 6). These sites represent habitats which are never inundated(淹没) with water, are periodically inundated, or have saturated(浸透) soils, respectively. [2]Shoot sections (嫩枝条)of 5, 10, and 15 cm lengths were cut from these plants and positioned in flats(平地) containing a soil mixture of perlite (珍珠岩), vermiculite ( 蛭岩), and peatmoss (苔泥炭) ( 1:1:1). The flats were maintained in the Department of Biological Sciences' greenhouse where they experienced ambient meteorological conditions except for 6 seconds of mist every 3. 5 minutes between 8: 00 and 20: 00 hours daily. Shoot sections and attached leaves were examined at weekly intervals for pigment (色质) and tissue changes as well as for development of lateral shoots. After 26~28 days the sections were rinsed to remove adherent material and dried at room temperature (approximately 22℃ ) for a week. The adventitious roots from each section were removed with needle-nose forceps, dried at 60℃ for 24 hours, and then weighed to determine dry biomass. One lake site 5-cm section was lost during processing.

分析:

此部分严格按照时间顺序描述实验过程。第1段描述采样的时间、试样的来源与数量。名叫“千屈莱”的试样来自三个地带,分别代表三种生长环境。试样的数量分别是5、10、6棵。第2段首先描述实验基地,及其环境与条件。然后客观描述实验的详细过程与步骤。描述某一研究方法时,要考虑读者是否了解此方法。如果不了解,描述便需要详细一些。这一点在农、林、医学、教育、社会科学、环境科学等领域尤为突出。例2中的选段描述的是一个关于生活用水和农业用水质量”函授培训班的教学与评估方法。由于教学过程与评估方法的特殊性,读者事先不可能对它有详细了解,所以文中要描述得清楚、详细一些。

例2

Correspondence Teaching Methods

[1] The program evaluated in this research was a correspondence training course entitled "Quality Water for Home and Farm" developed for county extension agents( 函授部学员). The program began with a one-day meeting followed by seven monthly written lessons. The program concluded with another one-day meeting. The one lesson-per-month format was selected to allow agents to complete the assignments as part of their regular work schedule.

[2] The program followed a simple model for identifying water quality problems and potential solutions.

Step 1: Identify the beneficial uses of water (such as for drinking water, livestock water, irrigation, recreation).

Step 2: Test the water to ensure that it is of sufficient quality for the beneficial use.

Step 3: If water quality problems are identified, examine correction options in four categories to determine which is most affordable and appropriate. The categories are:

1. Protect the supply from the contaminant;

2. Find and eliminate the contaminant source;

3. Treat the water to remove the contaminant;

4. Find and develop a new water supply.

[3] Steps 1 and 2 on water testing were presented to participants in the initial six-hour meeting. The first correspondence lesson also covered water testing. The six remaining correspondence lessons addressed each of the options for solving water quality problems. Water treatment was divided into three lessons; disinfection, treatment of nuisance waters, and removals of toxins. The final lesson and final meeting covered the development of new water supplies. Each written lesson contained reading material, references, teaching materials, questions, calculations, and exercises.

[4]Agents taking the water quality correspondence training were required to return assignments each month to remain enrolled in the program. Letters of encouragement were sent to delinquents. At the end of the program, extension agents who completed the program received certificates. A list of graduates was distributed to extension administrators, faculty, and staff.

Evaluation Methods

[5]The participants were tested to evaluate the extent of learning. Simple tests were constructed of true/false, multiple choice, and fill-in-the-blank questions to address the important aspects of the program using methods described by Ary et al. (1990). A written pretest was administered at the beginning of the first meeting. A post test of similar but different questions was administered at the end of the closing meeting. The purpose of the pretest was to measure the previous knowledge of the participants. The participants may also learn the subject matter from the pretest, become familiar with the testing approach and therefore be less anxious when taking the post test.

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