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健身的基本知识

时间:2013-09-02 14:13:17  来源:  作者:

 Mayo健康指南的第四个话题:健身。
Fitness basics
健身的基本知识


By Mayo Clinic staff

Starting a fitness program may be one of the best things you can do for your health. After all, physical activity can reduce your risk of chronic disease, improve your balance and coordination, help you lose weight — even boost your self-esteem. And the benefits are yours for the taking, regardless of age, sex or physical ability.
为身体健康所能作的最好的投资就是开始一项健身计划。毕竟体育锻炼能降低患慢性疾病的风险,能增强身体的平衡和协调能力,还能帮你减轻体重——甚至能提高自尊心。无论年龄、性别和体质能力如何,你都能从健身中获益。

The Department of Health and Human Services recommends that healthy adults include aerobic exercise and strength training in their fitness plans, specifically:
卫生与公共服务部提出建议,在健康成年人的健身计划中应包含有氧运动和力量训练,特别是:


• At least 150 minutes of moderate aerobic activity — or 75 minutes of vigorous aerobic activity — a week
*每周要有——至少150分钟的适度有氧运动——或者75分钟的剧烈有氧运动


• Strength training exercises at least twice a week
*至少每周两次的力量训练活动


Regular exercise can help you control your weight, reduce your risk of heart disease, and strengthen your bones and muscles. But if you haven't exercised for some time and you have health concerns, you may want to talk to your doctor before starting a new fitness routine.
定期锻炼能帮助你控制体重、降低患心脏疾病的风险,还能强健骨骼和肌肉。但是,如果你有一段时间没有锻炼过了,并且有健康方面的问题,那么在你开始一项新的健身计划之前,可能想先和医生讨论一下。


When you're designing your personal fitness program, consider your fitness goals. Think about your fitness likes and dislikes, and note your personal barriers to fitness. Then consider practical strategies for keeping your fitness program on track.
在决定了个人健身计划之后,考虑一下你的健身目标。想想你的健身偏好,并且要注意健身时会遇到的阻碍。然后再考虑能使健身计划步入正轨的实用的策略。


Starting a fitness program is an important decision, but it doesn't have to be an overwhelming one. By planning carefully and pacing yourself, you can make fitness a healthy habit that lasts a lifetime.
开始健身计划是一个非常重要的决定,但是没有必要让它压倒你。通过仔细的计划和坚实的起步,你就能使健身成为持续一生的健康习惯。


Stretching and flexibility
伸展和柔韧性


By Mayo Clinic staff

Stretching is a powerful part of any exercise program. Most aerobic and strength training programs inherently cause your muscles to contract and flex. Stretching after you exercise promotes equal balance. Stretching also increases flexibility, improves range of motion of your joints and boosts circulation. Stretching can even promote better posture and relieve stress.
伸展是所有锻炼计划中非常强有力的部分,在大部分有氧运动和力量训练计划中,都会使肌肉收缩和屈曲,在运动之后进行伸展能促进二者的平衡(译者:指肌肉收缩后通过伸展得到放松)。伸展还能提高柔韧性,增大关节活动范围,促进血液循环。伸展甚至能塑造更美身形,并且能缓解压力。


As a general rule, stretch whenever you exercise. If you don't exercise regularly, you might want to stretch at least three times a week to maintain flexibility. When you're stretching, keep it gentle. Breathe freely as you hold each stretch. Try not to hold your breath. Don't bounce or hold a painful stretch. Expect to feel tension while you're stretching. If you feel pain, you've gone too far.
一般说来,在运动后都要进行伸展。如果没有定期锻炼,那么你可能需要每周至少伸展三次来保持柔韧性。在伸展时,要保持动作柔和,在保持伸展状态时自主呼吸,试着别去控制呼吸,不要做弹跳动作或者做会产生疼痛的伸展动作。在伸展时感觉到张力就好,如果感觉到疼痛,那就伸展过头了。


Aerobic exercise
有氧运动


By Mayo Clinic staff

Regular aerobic exercise can help you live longer and healthier. After all, aerobic exercise reduces health risks, keeps excess pounds at bay, strengthens your heart and boosts your mood. Healthy adults should aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate aerobic activity — or 75 minutes of vigorous aerobic activity — a week. That doesn't have to be all at one time, though. Aerobic exercise can even be done in 10-minute increments. So what are you waiting for?
定期进行有氧运动能使你更加健康,还能延长寿命。毕竟有氧运动能降低健康风险,令体内多余脂肪无处藏身,强健心脏,还能使情绪昂扬。健康成年人的目标应该是每周至少进行150分钟的适度有氧运动——或者75分钟剧烈有氧运动。不必一次完成,有氧运动的时间甚至可以每次10分钟进行累加。所以你还等什么呢?


For many people, walking is a great choice for aerobic exercise. In fact, walking is one of the most natural forms of exercise. It's safe, it's simple — and all it takes to get started is a good pair of walking shoes and a commitment to include aerobic exercise in your daily routine.

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