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寒冷天气下如何安全锻炼

时间:2011-02-18 17:08:20  来源:  作者:

寒冷天气下安全锻炼-颤抖、冻伤和较低体温
By Elizabeth Quinn, About.com Guide
作者:Elizabeth Quinn, About.com Guide
Updated December 18, 2010
更新2010年12月18号
Winter weather means taking special precautions when you exercise outside. Cold exposure can make outdoor activity uncomfortable or even dangerous for anyone unprepared for extreme weather. It's important to be aware of the early warning signs and symptoms of cold exposure and how to prevent problems.
冬天寒冷的天气需要我们在进行室外锻炼的时候格外注意。在极端天气下对于未做好准备的任何人来说,严寒中身体的暴露可使室外活动很不舒服甚至更危险。因此,注意寒冷暴露的早期迹象和症状警告以及如何预防问题显得十分重要。
Shivering
颤抖
Shvering is usually the first sign of dangerous cold exposure. As the body is trying to generate it's own heat you will develop uncontrolled muscle contraction. Shivering should be your first warning to seek shelter and warm up your core temperature.
颤抖通常是寒冷暴露危险的第一迹象。当身体努力产生热量时,你会感到一种无法控制的肌肉收缩。颤抖是你寻求庇护和提高你核心温度的第一警告。
The two most dangerous conditions that can result from cold weather exposure include frostbite and hypothermia.
另外两个可能由寒冷天气暴露导致的最危险的情况包括冻伤和低体温。
Frostbite
冻伤
Frostbite describes the freezing of superficial tissues of the face, ears, fingers and toes.
冻伤指脸部、耳朵、手指和脚趾表面组织的冻结。
Signs and Symptoms of Frostbite
冻伤的迹象和症状
•Pain
疼痛
•Burning

灼烧
•Numbness
麻木
•Tingling
刺痛
•Skin turns hard and white
皮肤变硬变白
•Skin starts to peel or get blisters
皮肤开始起皮起泡
•Skin starts to itch
皮肤开始发痒
•Skin gets firm, shiny, and grayish-yellow
皮肤变得坚硬、发亮和灰黄
Frostbite Treatment
冻伤治疗
To help a frostbite victim, get the person to a warm, dry place and remove constrictive clothing. Raise affected areas and apply warm, moist compresses to these areas. Do not rub frostbitten areas or apply direct heat.
帮助冻伤的患者,需带他到暖和、干燥的地方并脱掉紧身的衣服。抬起冻伤部位并敷上温热、微湿的绷带。不可揉搓冻伤区域或直接加热。
Hypothermia
低体温
Hypothermia is a more severe response to cold exposure that is defined as a significant drop in body core temperature.
低体温是由寒冷暴露引起的更加严重的反应。它的定义是身体核心温度的骤然下降。
Signs and Symptoms of Hypothermia
低体温的迹象和症状
•Shivering
颤抖
•Cold sensation, goose bumps, confusion, numbness
冷感、起鸡皮疙瘩、混乱、麻木
•Intense shivering, lack of coordination, sluggishness
严重颤抖、不能协调、行动迟缓
•Violent shivering, difficulty speaking, mental confusion, stumbling, depression
不停颤抖、说话困难、意识混乱、跌跌撞撞、情绪低落
•Muscle stiffness, slurred speech and trouble seeing
肌肉僵硬、说话含糊不清、问题不断
•Unconsiousness
失去意识
Hypothermia Treatment
低体温治疗
At the first sign of hypothermia take the person to a dry, warm place or warm the victim with blankets, extra dry clothing or your own body heat.
看到低体温后,应首先带患者到干燥、暖和的地方或用毯子、其它干衣服或你的体温温暖他的身体。
Hypothermia Prevention
低体温预防
The first line of defense against cold exposure is dressing in layers that are appropriate for the conditions. Layers should include a combination of clothing (base, mid and outer) that help regulate your temperature and keep you warm and dry. Other factors that can negatively affect your ability to handle cold temperatures can include inadequate winter hydration and nutrition, dehydration, alcohol consumption, certain medications and health conditions such as diabetes and heart disease, which can significantly decrease a person's ability to exercise outdoors in the cold.
抵抗寒冷暴露首当其冲是穿上符合条件的衣服。衣服应包括几层(打底、中间和外套)这样可以调节温度并保持暖和和干燥。其它可以负面影响你对抗寒冷温度能力的因素包括不充足的冬季水分和营养、脱水、饮酒、某些药物和健康状况如糖尿病和心脏病,这些都可能严重减低在寒冷天气进行室外运动的能力。
To improve your comfort and safety while exercising in the cold, the American College of Sports Medicine recommends the following:
想提高寒冷天气运动时的舒适度和安全,美国体育医药学院建议:
•Layer Clothing
穿上一层层的衣服
Several thin layers are warmer than one heavy layer. Layers are also easier to add or remove and thus, better regulate your core temperature. The goal is to keep the body warm and minimize sweating and avoid shivering.
几层薄薄的衣服比只穿厚厚的一层要暖和。多层衣服可更方便地添减因此可以更好的调节你的核心温度。这样做的目的是保持身体暖和,减少出汗,防止颤抖。

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