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《生活的艺术》

时间:2010-08-02 19:59:11  来源:  作者:

THE enjoyment of life covers many things: the enjoyment of ourselves, of home life,of trees, flowers, clouds, winding rivers and falling cataracts and the myriad thingsin Nature, and then the enjoyment of poetry, art, contemplation, friendship,conversation, and reading, which are all some form or other of the communion of spirits.There are obvious things like the enjoyment of food, a gay parly or family reunion,an outing on a beautiful spring day; and less obvious things like the enjoyment ofpoetry, art and contemplation. I have found it impossible to call these two classesof enjoyment material and spiritual, first because I do not believe in thisdistinction, and secondly because I am puzzled whenever I proceed to make this classification. How can I say, when I see a gay picnic party of men and women andold people and children, what part of their pleasures is material and what part spiritual? I see a child romping about on the grass plot, another child making daisychains, their mother holding a piece of sandwich, the uncle of the family biting ajuicy, red apple, the father sprawling on the ground looking at the sailing clouds,and the grandfather holding a pipe in his mouth. Probably somebody is playing agramophone, and from the distance there come the sound of music and the distant roar of the waves. Which of these pleasures is material and which spiritual? Is it so easyto draw a distinction between the enjoyment of a sandwich and the enjoyment of the surrounding landscape, which we call poetry? Is it possible to regard the enjoyment of music which we call art, as decidedly a higher type of pleasure than the smoking of a pipe, which we call material? This classification between material and spiritual pleasures is therefore contusing, unintelligible and untrue for me. It proceeds, I suspect, from a false philosophy, sharply dividing the spirit from the flesh, and not supported by a closer direct scrutiny of our real pleasures.
 

 


生之享受包括许多东西:我们本身的享受、家庭生活的享受,树木、花朵、云霞、溪流、瀑布,以及大自然的形形色色,都足以称为享受;此外又有诗歌、艺术、沉思、友情、谈天、读书等的享受,后者的这些都是心灵交流的不同表现。这许多享受中,有些享受是易见的,如食物的享受,社交宴会或家庭团聚的欢乐,风和日暖时春天的野游;另外一些较不明显的,则为诗歌、艺术和沉思等享受。我觉得这些享受,不能把它分为物质的或精神的两类,一来因为我不以为应有这种区别,二来因为我在把它们分类时,每不知适从。当我看见一批男女老少在享受一个欢乐的野宴时,叫我怎能说得出哪一部分是属于物质,哪一部分是属于精神?当我看到一个孩子在草地上跳跃,还有一个孩子用雏菊在编造一个小花环,母亲的手里拿着一块夹肉面包,叔父在咬一只甜美的红苹果,父亲仰卧在草地上凝望着天上的白云,祖父口中含着烟斗;也许还有人在开留声机,远远地传来了音乐的声音;或是波涛的吼声。这些欢乐之中,哪一种是属于物质,哪一种是属于精神的呢?享受一块夹肉面包和享受四周的景色(后者就是我们所谓诗歌),其区别是否很容易地可以分出来呢?听音乐,我们称之为艺术的享受;吸烟斗,我们称之为物质的享受;可是我们能够说,前者的享受比后者更高尚吗?所以在我看来,物质上的欢乐和精神上的欢乐,它的分别是紊乱的、不易分辨的、不真确的。我疑心这种分类是根据于一种错误的哲学理论,把美和肉严加分别,而并没有将我们真正欢乐直接严密研究一下子以为证明。

 

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