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为什么他们如此势不可挡?

时间:2012-08-14 16:55:27  来源:  作者:

安迪.沃维克,2014年索契冬奥会教学资料收集主编
191 votes by Nate Sharpe, Raphael Ezud, Sheji Ho, (more)
获得191票的支持
I identify the following factors as being behind China’s success at the Olympics. Neither one alone is enough. Their dominance is a marriage of all of them:
我认为以下的因素决定了中国在奥运赛场上的大获成功,并不是说中国在其中某一方面就一马当先,而是中国处处都占尽了一定的优势。
1. Talent pool. With a population of 1.3 billion you have a pretty good chance of finding a few hundred that are world-class athletes. And you can afford to be really picky. At the end of the day it all boils down to ability, and China has more people with the latent talent that they can find and develop. And they do, on a scale like no other country. China's National Games have the same number of competitors as the Olympics. Only 4% of them make the Olympic team.
1.源源不断的人才供给。13亿的人口还愁找不到一些世界级的优秀苗子?甚至中国还有足够的本钱去精益求精。即使是在送往赛场上的最后一天,运动员能否征战依旧要凭实力说话。正是这样的大背景下,相比起一些捉襟见肘的人口小国,中国可以在人才的培养上大施拳脚。就连中国的国内比赛都能拥有如同奥运会一样激烈的竞技水平,而其中的4%的运动员更是有望成为未来奥运会的有力夺金者。
2. Large delegation. China sends more athletes than most countries. A country can’t win 100 medals if they only send 12 competitors. Quite simply, China can win more because there are more people to do the winning.
2.巨大的出征代表团。 中国拥有强大的奥运代表团,光是这一点就令大多数国家望尘莫及。12个运动员组成的代表团当然不能拿下100枚奖牌,中国却能够摘金夺银因为他们的队伍实在太强大了。
3. Playing the percentages. Related to point 2. China enters at least one athlete into almost every event, and often several, increasing the chances of getting their hands on the medals. You have to be in it to win it after all, and China makes sure it’s in everything.
3.对机会主义深信不疑。参考第二点。中国保证在奥运会的所有赛事中至少有一名运动员参加,当然如果有多名,无疑是为奖牌的争夺增加保险。毕竟有些国家不可能在配置上如此面面俱到,但至少中国有这个本钱。
4. Diversity. Related to points 2 and 3. China no longer focuses on just a few sports like some countries do. They have their strengths that get the lions share of money and resources – diving, table tennis, gymnastics, badminton, shooting – but they don’t ignore their weaknesses now. They have made huge improvements in things they have been traditionally weaker at like rowing, sailing and swimming.
4.传统优势项目上的独大。同样参考第二点和第三点。中国不必像其他一些国家只专注部分赛事,但是中国有能力在他们的传统优势项目上稳操胜券——跳水,乒乓球,体操,羽毛球,射击——因此尽管存在薄弱的项目也会因为这些优势项目而有所弥补。另外,中国已经在他们曾经的弱势项目上有了突飞猛进,例如赛艇,帆板,游泳。
5. High-yield events. China is good at at least one sport for which a lot of medals can be won: gymnastics (18 golds). Besides the team and individual all-around events every apparatus has an individual event so the same athletes can double, or even treble, up. A single talented gymnast can win more than a group of handball, football or basketball players put together. That same person can compete in half a dozen medal events, whereas a track runner has to specialise. Thus to win lots of track medals you need lots of talented athletes.
5.一人多金。中国擅长在单项赛事上拿下数枚奖牌:体操(18枚)。包括团体或者个人的全能项目上,参赛的运动员往往能够在相关的多项赛事上拿下两枚,三枚甚至更多的奖牌。一个卓越的体操选手的夺金数显然超过了手球,足球和篮球一起的金牌数。因此同样的选手可以在差不多六项赛事上摘金夺银,当然对于田径场上的赛跑选手来说就有点特殊了,因为田径赛场上强手如林,这就需要运动员有超高的竞技水平。
6.Sports academies. Kids with little academic aptitude and/or strong athletic potential attend dedicated sports schools, where they train in their chosen field almost every day. They are basically full-time athletes from childhood. Not many western athletes have the luxury of skipping out on their maths homework to practice sports. Chinese kids hit their 10,000 hours pretty early.
6.人为造就的竞技先知。在中国, 一个拥有低水平学术水平却拥有高水平的竞技水平的孩子们会提早进入体校,在那里他们每天会进行单调而艰苦的训练,从一打小开始,他们就进入了全日制的运动员生活。对于西方的孩子们而言,他们可绝不会拿做数学作业的时间去锻炼体育的,就凭这一点,中国的孩子先天就多出了10000个小时。
7. Funding/subsidies. Chinese athletes don’t work, unless you count training all day every day as their job. They get money to do that. A lot of athletes have to fit their training in and around their normal lives, such as getting up at 5am to swim before college classes or going running after work in the evening. It's similar to the Soviet system of state-funded, full-time amateurs.
7.举国体制的推行。中国的运动员们把他们的体育事业看成是自己日常的本职工作,换言之,没有薪水他们就不会卖命。许多运动员们把训练融入了他们的日常生活, 例如有人每天上大学前会在5点钟起床练习游泳,或者有人会在日常训练前晨跑。这像极了苏联曾经推行的举国体制,有的全是职业的运动员,没有的只是兼职的业余。

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