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怎样借钱给亲戚?

时间:2012-03-22 18:10:55  来源:  作者:

保罗•布洛克需要一个网站来宣传、推广他的艺术品,但是他手头没有1000美金付给网页设计者。所以,保罗向他哥哥内德求助。内德经常帮助他,补贴他的营业费用。
“I am happy to help when I can,” says Ned, who works in financial services. Ned estimates the total amount he has lent Paul is around $10,000. But he figures that because each loan is only $1,000 to $2,000 and his brother always pays him back, he doesn’t need a formal agreement. So far, he’s been lucky.
内德从事金融服务业,他说:“在我力所能及的时候,我很乐意帮他。”内德估计他总共借了10,000美元给保罗。不过,因为每次借钱数额只在1000到2000美元之间,而且保罗也都如数归还,所以他估计他还不需要正式的借据。目前看来,他是幸运的。
Lending money to family members — whether you’re rich or poor — is fraught with emotional potholes that you don’t know exist when you provide or accept a loan with a business associate. There are a few guidelines that you can heed that may help diffuse the tension that may occur with such transactions among family members.
不管你是贫是富,借钱给亲戚总会让你感到别扭,而当你放贷给生意上的伙伴时却没有这种感受。这里有几条建议,或许能帮你减轻处理这类事情时的不安。
Assess the need
1.确定需求
As Ted Beck, CEO of National Endowment for Financial Education (NEFE) sees it, there are three scenarios in which a family member might need a loan: co-signing for young college graduate without credit history; lending to a someone in debt; or making a loan to a family member without a job. As you can imagine, each situation will require you to think differently about each loan.
特德•贝克是美国国家金融教育基金会(NEFE)的CEO,他认为,借钱给亲戚可能会遇到下面这三种情况:为没有信用记录的大学生提供担保;借钱给还处于负债中的人,或者借给没有工作的亲戚。情况不同,你要考虑的借款方案就不同。 1
About 25 percent of people in a recent NEFE survey reported they had co-signed for a family member. “That is a high number,” says Beck. For those adult children transitioning to financial independence, it makes sense. It doesn’t assume that the co-signer will make the payments but it does mean that the co-signer has a debt obligation. “It is important that both parties understand what co-signing means — to help establish credit — and that the co-signer understands it goes on their credit score,” says Beck.
NEFE最近的调查显示,约有25%的人为某亲戚提供担保。贝克认为“这个比例很高”。这对于那些正在向经济独立过渡的成年孩子来说意义重大。担保者无疑都要付账,更重要的是共同担保就要共同承担债务。“双方都应该明白共同担保意味着什么,这很重要。担保是帮助别人建立信用,担保者必须明白这关系到他们自己的信誉度。”贝克说。
Lending to someone with a debt problem should be set up like a real loan with a transactional component complete with interest rates, repayment schedule, etc. Try to understand the person’s situation. “This is very high risk and before you lend the money you have to make sure you can afford it,” says Beck. Also note that the interest you accrue on the loan is taxable. You can use the applicable federal rate (AFR). That is the lowest interest rate you can charge someone.
借钱给还有负债的人要像交易时真正放贷一样,写明利息、还款计划等等。尽量弄清他们的财务状况。“这种情况风险很高,借钱之前必须明确你是否有能力来负担。”贝克说,同时他指出,你放贷所得利息是要纳税的。你可以用联邦适用利率(AFR),这是你能收的最低利率。
Finally, lending money to a family member without a job is the toughest situation. “The person doesn’t have the ability to repay you,” says Beck. In this instance, you’ll need to think of the money as a gift rather than a loan. Internal Revenue Service laws allow you the ability to give someone up to $13,000 on an annual basis — tax free. After that, the next dollar is subject to gift tax that starts at 35 percent.
最后,借钱给没有工作的亲戚是最难办的。“他们没有能力还债。”贝克说。在这种情况下,你应该把借钱当做是送礼。按美国国税局的相关法规,你每年可以免税赠予他人13000美元,超过这个数额就要交纳至少35%的赠与税。
Determine the best strategy
2 .选择最佳解决方案
Once you’ve got a handle on the type of situation, you’ll need to decide on the best loan strategy. Wealthier folks often provide investment lending or bridge loans to one another. These strategies are for much larger sums of money. “You also will need to decide whether you want to take collateral with a bridge loan,” says Drew Kanaly, chairman and CEO of Kanaly Trust, a wealth management firm. For extremely large sums there are firms that will actually do the mechanics of the loan for a monthly fee, that is collect the payments and move the money.
当你弄清楚情况之后,就需要选择最好的借款方案。富裕的人常会选择提供投资贷款或过渡性融资。这需要大量的资金。“提供过渡性贷款时你也要决定是否需要抵押品。”理财公司Kanaly Trust的首席执行官Drew Kanaly这样说。对于数额巨大的贷款,可以找公司帮忙运作,每月交纳一定费用,公司帮你收款、转账。

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